Unlike many other languages, English has a variety of vowel sounds, so there have to be signals to guide the reader. One example is the silent E (hat, hate). Another is the double consonant (diner, dinner). The C, CK, K rule is a variation of the double consonant rule.
Only a tiny handful of English word have a double K, and these are usually compounds like jackknife. There are many words with a double C, but the C’s usually have different sounds, as in accident, occidental, eccentric, and vaccine.
Then there are words that have a double C that is really not necessary. These include exotic imports like stucco, yucca, toccata, and tobacco, plus more common words like succor, occur, occupy, accuse, and accountable. Fortunately there are not many of these.
The rule for short, single syllable words is quite simple. After a short vowel, use CK (back). After a long vowel or a consonant, use K (bank). If the word has more than one syllable and ends in the K sound, we usually spell it with a C (public, maniac, domestic).
Mixed in with the long vowel words that end in the K sound (book, week, soak) are plenty of easily recognized exotic imports such as kayak, Sputnik, beatnik, kapok, and mukluk.