But, yes, there are exceptions to many of the rules, although when we consider the enormous number of words in the English language and the diverse origins of the words, it is astonishing that there are so few exceptions.
Some rules have only a tiny handful of exceptions. One rule has no exceptions. This rule states that the letter Q must always be followed by a U and a vowel. English has more than 2,500 words that use the Q and follow the rule that says the word should begin QU…. No commonly used English word breaks this rule.
Words that seem to break the rule are loan words or translations from another alphabet, such as Arabic or Pinyin Chinese. One or two words may come from Hebrew or the Inuit language. Words and names that come from the Arabic, Iraq, Quran, Aqaba, are usually easy for us to recognize and pronounce. The sounds of the words and their beginning consonants in Arabic are quite different. For example, kalb means “dog,” but qalb means “heart.”
Similarly, The Q in Pinyin Chinese looks like it should be pronounced K. But the consonants in Chinese are also quite different. For example the port of Qingdao is also known as Tsingtao.
There appear to be a few modern exceptions to the QU rule, but they’re usually invented words or acronyms. The company name Compaq was invented. . The stock market name Nasdaq is an acronym for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System, where the Q stands for “quotations.” The airline name Quantas is an acronym in which the Q refers to Queensland. And Qwerty is simply a line of left-hand letters on a keyboard.